Web 2.0 Lecture – Network security and Cybercrime

Web 2.0 is an unbrella term.

O’Reily talks about a resistance to Web 2.0. He talks about web 1.0 to web 2.0. If there is such thing as web 1.0 you couldnt change it and in Web 2.0 there came social networking, wikis and blogs, now people have the same page.

People are using web 2.0 but they dont know what it is. Web 2.0 is artifitial. There has been a 2001 .com bubble – where all internet companies when bust and the internet went out of control and the people took control. The internet was meant to be a sharing and collaborating place.

The ‘Web’ isnt the same as the internet. There is a distinction. ‘Web’ is part of the internet. Web is for browsing and internet is the whole thing. There are more things to the internet that just the web. THere is the ultraweb, intranet etc. THe internet is the ‘inforstucture’ – telecoomunication and equiptment or tools (such as podcasts and video; everything we use to connect) and the web is how we use it.

He also suggests that we are heading towards web 3.0, which is the semantic, intellegent and predictive internet, for example, Amazon, Google and Facebook.

Andy Clarke writes in ‘Natral Born Cyborgs’ that web 3.0 will be like slugs. We will save energy and all the information we need will only be 1 click away instead of 3 or 4 clicks.

Wolfram Alpha is a good internet site that finds the information that you need by asking one question. It searches different websites for the information you are looking for and is connecting the information to.

There is also a visual search engine called quintua. It narrows the searches down by relating what you type down to other relevent things. THe more you put in the more you refine.

Cybernaught is someone who travels into cyberspace and is the root word.

What is Cybercrime?: Cybercrime is defined by British police as the use of any computer network for crime and the high-tech criminals of the digital age have not been slow to spot the opportunities.

(BBC, 2012)

Cybercrime and Cyberspace

Cyber bullying could be a cybercrime.

What are the effects of cybercrime?

The Department of Justice categorizes computer crime in three ways:

  1. The computer as a target – attacking the computers of others (spreading viruses is an example).
  2. The computer as a weapon – using a computer to commit “traditional crime” that we see in the physical world (such as fraud or illegal gambling).
  3. The computer as an accessory – using a computer as a “fancy filing cabinet” to store illegal or stolen information.

(Cyber Citenship, BBC 2012)

It is a crime against the government or public. It can involve downloading porn, hacking,

Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:

Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:

Fraud: Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes, is unlawful in some jurisdictions. While anti-spam laws are relatively new, limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed for some time

(Wikipedia, 2012)

What is the definition of cyber: the culture of the computer. Someone who guides.

It is said that teachers arent there to teach but to ask questions.

These link to digital Literacies – what are the links and connections?

Prof. Steve Furnell – Cyber Crime: Vandalising the Information Society – read leading cyber crime





Cybercrime and Network Security

Information system security

A decipline that protects the


of information and information serves. This has to be in place in every organisation. AKA: Network Security, Computer Security, Information Assurance and Cyber Warfare.

Cyber Warfare

Sides have been taken: By June 2006 180,292 unique computer viruses had veen Identified. There are approximently 150-259 new viruses identified every month.

A virus is a deliberate code mistake to replicate itself from one machine to the other. A bug is a mistake in programming that can be recrifided but a virus distroys your data.

Threats: Illict Activities

Hackers: enjoy intellectual challenges of overcoming software limitations and how to increase capabilities to the system but dont actual do it.

Crackers: Illegally breaking into other people’s secure systems and networks.

Cyber Terrorists: thretan and attack other people’s computers to further a social or political agenda.

Motivation for Hackers/Crackers

The Challenge ‘because its there’

Threats: Illict Activities

Malware: anything that is malicious.

Malware Writers: responsible for the creation of malicious software.

Samurai: hackers hired to legally enter secure computer/network enviroments.

‘Phreakers’: Focus on defeating telephone systems and associated communication technologis.

‘Phishing’: sending ouy scam e-mails with the criminal intent of deceit and extortion from banks or Pay Pal etc. The grammar or syntax won’t be perfect.

Spam: unsoclicited and/or undesired bulk email messages, often ‘selling’ a product (see also SPIM – targeting of Instant Messaging services) Phising is a technique used by strangers to fish for information about you, information that you would not normally disclose to a straner, such as your bank account number, PIN and National Insurance.

Zombie Computers: Your computer may be used by somebody else when you arent using them by a virus to send spam around the world. It is doing it without being around at all. There are ways of protecting this but it depends on your virus protection. Its happening everywhere and millions of people around the words are being effected.

Zombie BotNets: Botnets is a jargon term for a collection of software robots which run automatically.

Hackers and Crackers Characteristics

– Typically male
Mid teens to Mid twenties
– poor social skills
– Facination or obsession with computers
– Underachiever in other areas who sees computing as a means of being important or powerful.

It depends the severety of the case, the country etc. on wheather or how serverly you get in trouble for the

Malware types:
Conceal themseleves
Infect computer systems
Replicate themselves
Deliver a ‘payload’
E.g. Happy Birthday Virus

Worms: Programmes that are capable of independently

Trojan Horses: Programs that contain hidden functuality that can harm the host computer and the data i contains.

Software Bombs: Time Bombs: Triggered by a specific time/date. Logic Bombs: triggered by a specific event. Both are introduced some time before and will damage the host system.

Com Touch shows you where the spam is happening around the world and where/how much it is affecting. It is mostly in the US.  

What motivates hackers?

To see how far the virus will spread.
To cause damage and destruction to a targeted individual or organisation.
To achieve a superority/power.
To leverage some form of personal gain.
To provide a lesson.

Defefacing websites: Hackers can leaver their ‘graffiti’ on other people’s wevsites. Many sites have fallen foul of this activty: FBI, CIA, NASA, spice girls (1999) concervative part (1997).

Domain Hacking: Aljazeera TV Website Hacked and Defaced 2003

Simon Vallor: Two years jail for UK virus writer who infected 27,000 PCs, Sophos reacts

What is the connections to digital literacies?

It is important to us have advanced digital literacy skills to protect ourselves from all this. We dont know what the future technology will look like, but the situations with malware and hacking etc. will get worse. It will help us to protect systems in schools. Protecting ourselves and our organsiations from these is the future of digital literacy.

Connectivism is linked to Steven Downs, George Siemans. New theory of learning. You dont need to know everything but need to know the communities to get anywhere. Personal Learning Networks include twitter, facebook, myspace. Asking questions to find out information.

E-saftey is one of the digital literacies and comes under a variety of the eight digital literacies. It has a variety of connotations such as cyberbullying which is a real issue. Bullying happens in school then continues. Its percistance of information. For example, the ‘star wars kid’ on youtube. The Star Wars Kids parents sued the parents of the friends who uploaded the video. He had to have psychological help.

Youtube has become viral and any videos uploaded cant be taken down. It has become an art form because you can do different versions of the video you find online and on youtube. Who’s fault is it though? Is it the person who takes the video?
Google owns Youtube, it is based all over the world.
Apple doesnt make anything but designs it, it isnt made in America in other countries. It is globalised. Companies are global and transnational. Multinational companies have a lot of agencies. It is complex to approach this system is difficult to approach with many of the last centery systems we use today still such as the laws and education systems.